Facts and Figures
National Animal Statistics
The Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) (see the Policy & Oversight page for background) collects annual statistics on the use of animals in research, teaching and testing for institutions under the CCAC Program. Annual data reports can be downloaded here. It is important to note that the animal statistics published by CCAC represent those animals used in experimental procedures, and do not account for animals used for breeding purposes. The statistics also represent only those institutions under the CCAC program, and the use of animals in high schools is not overseen by the CCAC.
The most recently published annual statistics on the use of animals in research, teaching and testing in Canada report that 4,308,921 animals were used in 2016. This is a 21% increase from 2015.
Notably, the numbers of all species categories have increased between 2015 and 2016, with the exception of amphibians and Guinea pigs. Some important increases were seen in the numbers of pigs, cats, dogs and nonhuman primates.
|Species||Number of animals|
reported in 2015
|Number of animals|
reported in 2016
Purpose of animal use
The CCAC animal use data is broken down by Purpose of Animal Use. These categories are:
- Studies of a fundamental nature in science relating to essential structure or function
- Studies for medical purposes, including veterinary medicine, that relate to human or animal diseases or disorders
- Studies for regulatory testing of products for the protection of humans, animals, or the environment
- Studies for the development of products or appliances for human or veterinary medicine
- Education and training of individuals in post-secondary institutions or facilities
The below graph shows trends in Purpose of Animal Use from 1996-2016.
Categories of Invasiveness
The CCAC animal use data is also divided into Categories of Invasiveness, that is, the category of potential harm that animals may experience as a result of being used for experimental or teaching purposes. The Categories of Invasiveness are as follows:
- Category A: Experiments on most invertebrates or live isolates
- Category B: Experiments which cause little to no discomfort or stress
- Category C: Experiments which cause minor stressor pain of short duration
- Category D: Experiments which cause moderate to severe distress or discomfort
- Category E: Procedures which cause severe pain near, at, or above the pain tolerance threshold of unanesthetized conscious animals
The graph below shows trends in Categories of Invasiveness from 1996-2016.
Limitations to the numbers provided by CCAC
One of the pressing issues with the animal statistics data provided by the CCAC is the variability in the data collected from year to year. In recent years the data presented has switched formats a number of times; for example, in 2011 reptiles and amphibians were combined into one category, but for all other years they were separated into different categories. This makes it difficult to track trends in the use of some species over time.
On a related note, there is no current data on trends in animal use over time. This is because the method of data collection by CCAC changed after 2011. We have put together trends graphs including the latest published data so that overall trends in the numbers of animals in science can be easily seen (see trends graphs above and below). The CCAC caution against comparing animal data from 2012 onwards with any previous data, so the data appear in different colours in the total numbers trends graph provided below.The missing data point for 2010 is due to erroneous data that is being reevaluated. It must be noted that the lower animal numbers for 2012 might be a result of the change in data collection strategy by the CCAC.
Institutional Animal Statistics
The University of British Columbia is the only Canadian institution to publish their annual animal statistics for animals used in research and teaching at the university.
Data have been collected for several years, so it is now possible to look at trends in animal use at UBC.
Purpose of Animal Use
UBC report the numbers of animals used for breeding purposes. It should also be noted that UBC also combines regulatory testing and product development into one category that they call “regulatory testing.” NB. Due to an error in the data provided on the UBC animal research website, the data here only go up to 2014 – we have contacted UBC to get the correct data, and will update this graph as soon as we hear back.
Categories of Invasiveness
Limitations of UBC animal statistics
As per limitations of all CCAC institutions many animals used in dissection for undergraduate teaching are not included.